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Academic publications

Evaluation of river sand as a medium for raising cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) seedlings, Konlan, Sampson, and Opoku-Agyeman Michael Obour , American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry , 06/2014, Volume 2, Issue 4, Online, p.120, (2014) , (Academic Publication)
A Comparative Study of Effects of Drying Methods on Quality of Cocoa Beans, Lasisi, D. , International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 01/2014, Volume 3, Issue 1, Nigeria, p.996, (2014) , (Academic Publication)
Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal, Baon, J.B., Prawoto A.A., Wibawah A., and Abdoellah S. , JOURNAL OF DEGRADED AND MINING LANDS MANAGEMENT, 01/2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, p.104, (2014) , (Academic Publication)
Geographical Indication (GI) Options for Ethiopian Coffee and Ghanaian Cocoa, Oguamanam, Chidi, and Dagne Teshager , Innovation & Intellectual Property: Collaborative Dynamics in Africa, Cape Town, p.pp 77-108, (2014) , (Academic Publication)

Converging farmers' and scientists' perspectives on researchable constraints on organic cocoa production in Ghana: results of a diagnostic study

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TitleConverging farmers' and scientists' perspectives on researchable constraints on organic cocoa production in Ghana: results of a diagnostic study
Publication TypeJournal Article
AuthorsAyenor, G.K.
Start Page261
Date Published2004
Publication Languageenglish
Keywordsorganic cocoa production

A diagnostic study was conducted to identify the major constraints on organic cocoa production at
Brong-Densuso and surrounding communities in the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar District, Eastern Region,
Ghana. The study followed a technographic study that highlighted cocoa as a public crop requiring
broad techno-social innovations. In the technographic study, problems identified included low yields,
persistent pest management constraints and a low adoption rate of technologies developed by the Cocoa
Research Institute of Ghana. The diagnostic study adopted a Participatory Learning and Action Research
approach to set up and implement fieldwork with relevant stakeholders leading to problem identification,
prioritization, and collective design of an action plan (research agenda). Cocoa farmers within the
study area are conscious of the environmental problems associated with the use of inorganic pesticides
and the high cost of using them. Hence, they produce cocoa without applying any pesticides. Quite
recently, however, their association with an organic marketing company led to a search for non-chemical
pest and disease control measures and for ways to certify their cocoa beans as organic. A misconception
as to what species of cocoa pests constitute ‘capsids’ was settled between farmers and scientists
using a cage experiment on capsid damage. The farmers became convinced that the Cocoa Mosquito
(Helopeltis spp.) (Hemiptera: Miridae), which they had previously considered an important pest, was a
capsid species that caused little or no damage to the beans inside the pods. After this clarification,
damage caused by the Brown Capsid (Sahlbergella singularis; Hemiptera: Miridae) and the Black Capsid
(Distantiella theobroma; Hemiptera: Miridae) emerged as the most serious production constraint,
followed by Black Pod disease (caused by Phytophtora palmivora). The malfunctioning of tenure agreements
and the mistrust between landlords, who are mainly absentee farmers, and their caretaker cocoa
farmers pose a serious threat to pest management innovations, especially where pruning to control
Black Pod disease and uprooting trees infected with Swollen Shoot disease are concerned. The key
stakeholders involved in the study agreed on three innovative (organic) capsid control methods for
further research: the use of sex pheromone traps, crude aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) seed
extracts, and the use of ant (Oecophylla longinoda) colonies as biological control agents, the latter being
proposed by farmers. The paper reflects on the diagnostic study as a continuous process in response to
a continually changing context even beyond the end of the diagnostic research phase.

Farmers & production


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