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Practical publications

The Partially Liberalized Cocoa Sector in Ghana, Kolavalli, Shashidhara, Vigneri Marcella, Maamah Haruna, and Poku John , 09/2012, Washington, DC, (2012) , (Practical Publication)
Impact of Collective Marketing by Cocoa Farmers’ Organizations in Cameroon , Kamdem, Cyrille Bergaly, Tameko André Melachio, Ndeffo Luc Nembot, and Gockwoski James , 2013 Fourth International Conference, September 22-25, 2013, Hammamet, Tunisia, 09/2013, Tunisia, (2013) , (Practical Publication)
Marketing reforms in Ghana's cocoa sector, Laven, Anna , 2009///, (2009) , (Practical Publication)
Institutional innovation in the credit, input, and cocoa markets of West Africa, Gockowski, J., Mva J., Oduwole S., and Binam J. N. , STCP Working Paper Series, 2008, Accra, Ghana, (2008) , (Practical Publication)
Developing agricultural markets in Sub-Saharan Africa: organic cocoa in rural Uganda, Jones, Sam, and Gibbon Peter , Journal of Development Studies, 2011, Volume 47, Issue 10, p.1595 - 1618, (2011) , (Practical Publication)
Evaluation of the Liberia Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP), Social Impact , 2011, Washington, D.C., USA, (2011) , (Practical Publication)
Fairtrade and cocoa - Commodity Briefing, , 2011, (2011) , (Practical Publication)

Market Access for Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Nigeria: What Options?

TitleMarket Access for Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Nigeria: What Options?
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsAdeola, Olajide O., and J.E Olawoye
Date Published06/2014
InstitutionUniversity of Ibadan
Publication LanguageEnglish
Keywordssmallholder farmes

Cocoa is the major foreign exchange earner in Nigeria’s agricultural sector. It became a major produce in the sector in the 1950s with an average of 218 thousand tons over a period of 5 years, 1960 to 1965 (Akinwunmi, 1996). But from 1966-1970, cocoa output in the nation gradually declined, reaching an average production of 153 thousand tons per year between 1981 and 1985; it further declined to 137 thousand tons per year. While Nigeria experienced a gradual decline over a period of 2 decades, countries like Cote d’ Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia and Malaysia gradually increased their cocoa output. As such, world total cocoa production increased but while total world output steadily grew, world prices fluctuated from a high value of $2265 per ton in 1987 to $1327 per ton in 1992. The fluctuation continued over a period of 14 years, only slightly increasing and then decreasing until year 2006 when the price again steadily increased ( see figure 1; Akinwunmi, 1996, Ajetunmobi, 2007). The production and price trend had a serious impact on the livelihood and food security of Nigeria’s smallholder cocoa farmers and their families. Apart from the direct impact on them, many actors in the value chain were severely affected. Such actors include itinerant cocoa buyers, cocoa grading merchants, exporters, transporters, chemical companies and shippers. By the mid-1990s, it was clear that the sector needed to be revitalized in order to double production and improve the living standard of those who depended on it for their livelihood (Adegeye, 1996, Akinwunmi, 1996).



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