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access to land

Access to land differs per country and even per region. There are different types of smallholders,landowners and farmers, for example farmers who are landless but can use cocoa land through caretaking arrangements. Access to land is particularly challenging for female farmers, young farmers and migrants.

This unequal land access results in unequal benefits from cocoa sales, which affect the level of on-farm investments, the distribution of knowledge and the way farmers deal with risks.

Food for thought

In 2010 Knudsen and Fold published an interesting article on land distribution and acquisition practices in Ghana's cocoa frontier: the impact of a state-regulated marketing system.

Farmers & production

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