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Practical publications

An Assessment of Investment in Technology in Cocoa Processing Industry in Nigeria, , Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development , 05/2014, Volume 5, Issue 10, Akure, (2014) , (Practical Publication)
Improving Cocoa Production Through Lean: A Case Study of the Ghanaian Cocoa Industry, Boateng, Kwasi , The Faculty of the Department of Architectural and Manufacturing Sciences , 05/2014, Volume Master of Science , Bowling Green, p.62, (2014) , (Practical Publication)
Cocoa Quality Index Proposal, .R, AraujoQ, and al FernandesC.A.F et , 05/2014, (2014) , (Practical Publication)
Fertilizer use among Cocoa Farmers in Ghana: The case of the Sefwi Wiawso District, Nunoo, Isaac, Frimpong Benedicta Nsiah, and Frimpong Frederick Kwabena , Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, (0) , (Practical Publication)
Future Trends of the Export Demand for Selected Malaysian cocoa Products, A. Hameed, Abdel, and Arshad F.M. , Trends in applied sciences research, 06/2013, Institute of Agricultural and Food policy studies, (2013) , (Practical Publication)
Impact of Collective Marketing by Cocoa Farmers’ Organizations in Cameroon , Kamdem, Cyrille Bergaly, Tameko André Melachio, Ndeffo Luc Nembot, and Gockwoski James , 2013 Fourth International Conference, September 22-25, 2013, Hammamet, Tunisia, 09/2013, Tunisia, (2013) , (Practical Publication)

Contribution of cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry systems to the household economy of small-scale producers in Central America: The case of Bocas del Toro, Panama

TitleContribution of cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry systems to the household economy of small-scale producers in Central America: The case of Bocas del Toro, Panama
Publication TypeThesis
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsNiehaus, Lourdes A.
Academic DepartmentPlant and environmental sciences
Number of Pages76
Date Published08/2011
UniversityNorwegian University of Life sciences
Publication LanguageEnglish

Cacao (Theoroma cacao L.) is the main cash crop of Ngobe-Bugle indigenous communities in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Their traditional polycultures incluce many other food crops for family consumption, but there is no actual description of their diversity, productivity or contribution to household economy. This study was designed to determine the value and allocation of multiple products, depict floristic compsotion of cacao agroforestry systems (AFS), assess socio-economic performance and propose scenarios for poverty alleviation. Mixed quantitative and qualitative research methods determined productivity of all species in thirty-nine cacao AFS. Annual net cash flow (NCF) and family benefit (FB) were calculated. Bocatorean cacao AFS include 139 planted and naturally occuring species, among them considerable volumes of high-value timber. Functional makets for most products are missing. Smallholders generate most income (52%) from external sources. Cacao AFS bring in 19%; other farming activities account for the remaining 29%. Percent annual value from cacao AFS is mostly allocated to family consumption (45%) or ot feed farmyard animals (12%); sales account for 43%. The ratio of annual FB/ha to NCG/ha is 3.8. Returns to labour were $13.6 for FB and $3 for NCF, which denotes much greater productivity than measured in conventional financial terms and demonstrates the importance of cacao AFS for family food security. Alternatives to a one-crop approach are presented as income generation oppoerunities. Improved communal harvesting and forest management can foster timber and organic produce sales in nearby urban areas. High value fruits and spices can be introduced to diversify agrobiodiversity and markets. Better crop management and grafting of improved genetic material will increase cacao yields. Procuring payments for ecosystem services would benefit landowners. Sprking interest in the younger population would optimize the development of human capital, creativity, entrepreneurism and trade in a province where lack of job opportunities keeps almost 70% of the population under the poverty line.



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