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Academic publications

The State of Sustainability Initiatives Review 2014, Potts, Jason, and Lynch Matthew , 06/2014, p.135-155, (2014) , (Academic Publication)
FAIR TRADE – CONTRADICTING OR COMPLEMENTING SE? A critical research on RISE's Fair Trade activities within a social entrepreneurial framework, Gottlieb, Mikkel , Department Psychology and Eduction, 06/2014, Volume Social Entrepreneurship and Management, Roskilde, (2014) , (Academic Publication)
Challenges of farmers’ innovativeness in central zone, Tigray, Ethiopia A, Gebre, Girma Gezimu, and Zegeye Dawit Mamo , International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research, 05/2014, Volume 2, Issue 5, Ethiopia, p.223, (2014) , (Academic Publication)
Effect of crude oil price on Cocoa production in Nigeria (1961-2008): A cointergration and error correction modelling approach, Binuomote, S. O., and Odeniyi K. A. , Wilolud Journal, 09/2013, Volume 3, Issue 23, Nigeria, p.30, (2013) , (Academic Publication)
Small-scale versus large-scale cocoa farming in Cameroon. Which farm type is more ready for the future?, Fule, Chi Bemieh , Department of Economics, 06/2013, Volume European Erasmus Mundus Master Program: Agricultural Food and Environmental, Uppsala, p.54, (2013) , (Academic Publication)
A product chain organisation study of certified Cocoa supply, Afrane, George, Arvidsson Rickard, Baumann Henrikke, Borg Josefin, Keller Emma, Canals Llorenç Milà í, and Selmer Julie K. , The 6th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 08/2013, Gothenburg, (2013) , (Academic Publication)

Upgrading primary production: a global commodity chain approach

sjon van 't hof's picture
TitleUpgrading primary production: a global commodity chain approach
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2001
AuthorsGibbon, Peter
JournalWorld Development
End Page345 - 363
Date Published2001///
Publication Languageeng
KeywordsAfrica south of Sahara, chain governance, commodity markets, commodity prices, economic policies, markets & policies, private sector policies, trade & industry

Global commodity chain (GCC) analysis has been concerned mainly with examining power relations in global manufacturing industries, although it has been preoccupied increasingly by the question of how developing country (DC) producers can upgrade. This paper extends GCC analysis to ``traditional'' primary commodities, where international traders exercise the ``driving'' role, and suggests a new agenda for their upgrading in DCs, based upon public action. Three different types of upgrading are suggested: (i) capturing higher margins for unprocessed commodities; (ii) producing new forms of existing commodities; and (iii) localizing commodity processing. Case studies of the local (DC) segments of particular primary commodity chains show the practical difficulties and complexities of realizing even the most basic upgrading options generated by the abstract analysis earlier. Existing donor private sector development policies, extremely low state capacity and an absence of the properties often spontaneously attributed to ``industrial clusters'' combine with tendencies of international traders to minimize their involvement with local suppliers to create a situation whose apparent intractability provides a fundamental policy challenge. While GCC analysis can also identify the reasons for some of these constraints (e.g., the reasons for the lack of agglomeration), there are no obvious answers to this challenge be found within its present incarnations. At the same time, the further development of GCC analysis does seem a promising avenue to follow in seeking such answers.